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Oracle DBA Interview Questions

  1. What are all the job duties of a Oracle DBA?
    As opposed to regular office hours oracle database administration is a 5 to 9 job. If you are involved in supporting highly critical production env you are expected 24×7. Things apart here are the typical job duties of an Oracle DBA
    1) Be part of capacity planning meeting that does involve business analyst, project manager, infrastructure manager, senior DBA member, sales professional on an as needed basis. DBA is expected to provide information on database capacity planning. This will help the project manager determine cost of storage, servers, software license and all the factors needed for a project implementation. The capacity planning meeting can also be a project meeting in some organizations.
    2) Once the project does kick off , DBA should start with preparing the hardware, install the oracle software, create databases. With latest 12c multi-tenancy architecture consolidation projects are underway. Hence, DBA may have to create both pluggable database form seed template as well as migrate stand-alone instances onto container database
    3) Once the database is up and running, the development will proceed with product creation. At the end the entire bundle is released as an installer in case of product development firms. IF this is a service provider, this may not be needed
    4) Upgrading current version of database to latest version is a typical job of DBA. This starts with analyzing new features to determine the advantages of upgrade onto top management , testing upgrades, performing upgrades etc
    5) Maintain consistent copy of database by properly planning full and incremental database backups. This is the first need in case of disaster recovery
    6) Assist with developers to tune the queries utilizing oracle supplied tools
    7) Monitor the database for alerts, space growth and add additional disk space on an as needed basis
    8) Automate the routine job of DBA. This demands shell scripting knowledge these days
    9) Latest technologies like RAC, ASM, Dataguard implementation to provide high availability, disaster recovery are some projects that has become a mandate
    10) Work with cloud support engineer to migrate the existing environment onto cloud like Oracle cloud,rackspace, AWS etc
    11) Conduct business continuity testing in the form of disaster recovery meetings on a quarterly basis
    12)Support mission critical systems 24×7 via pager, cell phone
    Oracle DBA – Oracle database administrator is vested with the following responsibility as a quick summary :
    1) Install Oracle software
    2) Create Oracle database
    3) Configure Oracle database parameters
    4) create spfile from pfile – spfile is used for dynamic parameter changes
    5) Start the oracle instance
    6) Administer Oracle instance
    7) Stop oracle instance
    8) Move data across databases
    9) Use datapump utilities – expdp/impdp
    10) Use SQL*Loader utility
    11) Transportable tablespaces feature
    12) RMAN backup, restore, recovery
    13) User managed backup technique
    14) User managed recovery technique
    15) Tuning instances
    16) Tuning SQL
    17) RAC – Real Application Cluster
    18) Dataguard – Primary standby database, logical standby database configuration
    19) V$views
    20) Manage oracle objects
  2. How will you display oracle package specification and package body in an oracle database?
    Display Package specification and Package Body can be accomplished as follows. For package specification details issue the command:
    select line,text from user_source where name = ‘package_name’ and type = ‘PACKAGE’ order by line;
    desc ;
    For Package Body issue the command:
    select line,text from user_source where name = ‘package_name’and type = ‘PACKAGE BODY’order by line;
  3. How will you determine the tablespace management type in an oracle database?
    In an oracle database environment dba views can be made use of to determine the management type
    select tablespace_name, extent_management from dba_tablespaces;
    We can also make use of ts$ to determine if this is locally managed or dictionary managed
  4. What causes ORA-10616: Operation not allowed on this tablespace? How to fix this error?
    Locally managed tablespaces can be migrated to dictionary managed tablespaces only when segment space management is manual. Otherwise we are not able to perform this migration. In such cases we are going to get the following error
    ORA-10616: Operation not allowed on this tablespace
    SQL> select extent_management, allocation_type,segment_space_management from dba_Tablespaces where tablespace_name=’TSNAME’;
    EXTENT_MAN ALLOCATIO SEGMEN
    ———- ——— ——
    LOCAL UNIFORM AUTO — This value should be manual instead of AUTO for successful migration
  5. How do we determine if all the tablespaces are locally managed in an oracle database?
    Oracle database 12c has tablespaces and all are locally managed. If there has been a database upgrade from previous versions like 11g , 10g etc it is interesting to know if tablespaces are dictionary-managed (or) locally managed after migration. We can get to know this information from dba_tablespaces data dictionary view
    SQL> select tablespace_name,extent_management from dba_tablespaces;
    TABLESPACE_NAME                EXTENT_MAN
    —————————— ———-
    SYSTEM                         LOCAL
    SYSAUX                         LOCAL
    UNDOTBS1                       LOCAL
    TEMP                           LOCAL
    USERS                          LOCAL
    EXAMPLE                        LOCAL
  6. How to convert a dictionary managed tablespace to locally managed tablespace and vice-versa?
    It is possible to convert a dictionary managed tablespace to a locally managed tablespace and viceversa by following simple procedure
    dbms_space_admin.tablespace_migrate_to_local(‘tablespacename’); – Migrates dictionary managed tablespace to a locally managed tablespace
    dbms_space_admin.tablespace_migrate_from_local(‘tablespacename’); – Migrates a locally managed tablespace to a dictionary managed tablespace
    Above mentioned commands need to be executed while database is in restricted mode
  7. Can we perform dictionary to locally managed tablespace migration and viceversa of SYSTEM tablespace in a live environment?
    While performing migration of system tablespace we need downtime as DB is to be brought to restrict mode. This migration needs a temporary tablespace, all other tablespaces should be read only
    shutdown immediate;
    startup restrict;
    alter tablespace read only;
    dbms_space_admin.tablespace_migrate_to_local(‘SYSTEM’); (or) dbms_space_admin.tablespace_migrate_from_local(‘SYSTEM’);
    shutdown immediate;
    startup;
  8. Is there a possibility of an archivelog becoming corrupt? Archivelog a database file structure can be corrupted as a result of physical corruption due to disk storing it getting corrupt, an corruption in undo tablespace getting archived
  9. What is possible impact of archivelog corruption? This leaves archivelog in unusable state. Main issue is that RMAN backups fail when an archived redolog is corrupt
  10. What are some Oracle supplied utilities that come first hand during performance trouble shooting? Oracle AWR, ADDM ,ASH are some scripts that help us determine root cause of the issue
  11. ORA-00257 error upon archiving  file. Can you explain first hand cause of this issue? This is a common issue caused by archives getting filled up. Move archives from archival destination to a different location to fix this
  12. What is the first place to look for database issues is Oracle? Oracle records all of its issues in a file called alert.log . It is stored in diagnostic_dest from oracle database 11g version onwards. It is stored in trace folder location
  13. What is the use of listener.ora file? The listener.ora file contains the configuration information for the listener
  14. Is there a listener.ora file on the client machine? The listener service is run only on the server. So,there is no listener.ora file on the client machines
  15. How does dynamic service registration happens?
    The PMON process(process monitor) is in charge of dynamic service registration of new oracle database service names with the listener,when we create new oracle databases,they’ll register themselves with the listener service.The PMON process will update the listener.ora file after each new database is created on a server.
  16. What is the default value of INSTANCE_NAME parameter ?
    The INSTANCE_NAME parameter defaults to the SID value entered during Oracle installation or database creation.
  17. How will you display oracle database version details in a windows environment?
    1) In search bar type cmd and click search. Launch Shell prompt (cmd tool)
    2) Type sqlplus. It prompts for username and then password. To avoid this we can also make use of : sqlplus username/password@oracle_sid as sysdba. If you just typed sqlplus, enter the username; Password : enter value followed by as sysdba . Say your password is orcl then type orcl as sysdba. Click Enter. You’ll be logged onto SQL> prompt
    3) To get the database version issue the following command :
    SQL> select * from v$version;
    Data dictionary that gets installed as part of installation maintains state of database, information about database in a set of tables in system tablespace. These tables can be static in the sense they update database related information slowly as well as dynamic that records up-to-date activity details. These views are called v$ views. One such view is v$version view that records database version details.
  18. What is the way to determine DBID value while database is up and running?
    While database is up and running the database unique identifier commonly called as DBID from v$database view.
  19. What is the easiest way to determine if flash recovery area is enabled or disabled?
    Check if db_recovery_file_dest parameter is set from within sqlprompt
  20. How will you determine if backup of controlfile is enabled?
    Log into RMAN prompt and issue command show all. This provides information on whether controlfile autobackup is enabled (or) disabled
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HL7 Interview Questions

1) A message is sent by sending application. When new MSH segment is constructed in response to original message by responding application what are the rules used to create initial message?
i. In particular MSH-7 date/time of message and MSH-10 message control ID refers to the response message; they are not echoes of the fields in the initial message
ii. MSH -5 receiving application, MSH-6 receiving facility, MSH-11 processing id contains codes that are copied from MSH-3 sending application, MSH-4 sending facility and MSH-11 processing ID in the initial message

2) What components are ignored while receiving HL7 messages and converting their contents to data values?
Ignore segments, fields, components,subcomponents and extra repetitions of field that are present but were not expected

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529 Alternatives

Have you found pregnancy positive? How does it feel like the moment you get to know that you will be responsible for the entire life of the cute little being in another few months. As a responsible parent the first thing that comes to our mind is 529 plan for your kids education. 529 alternatives does not necessarily rule out the 529 investment opportunity. The goal of this post is to talk about pros and cons of many different investment options that parents have at their disposal if they are hesitant to consider 529 as investment option for kids future education savings option as this is a mutual fund option same as 401K retirement option that comes with market risk exposure. Check out to see what works best in your budget, thoughts on your kids future etc. Lets start with 529 plan and discuss the alternatives one by one
529 Plan Details – This is a traditional plan that came into existence around late 1980s. As per IRS a 529 plan is a plan that can be set aside for beneficiary. It can be child, grand child. The amount that goes as a contribution towards 529 plan can be used for qualified educational expenses. This amount can be used for college and post-secondary education expense.
Who does operate the 529 plan?
529 plan is operated by state, educational institution
Are 529 plans tax deductible?
Nope. 529 plans are offered on post-tax basis. Main tax advantage come into existence when the distribution earnings are used for qualified educational expenses that can be one of the following:
Tuition
Books
Fees
Board Rooms
Starting 2010 following items are eligible educational related expenses under 529 plan:
PC Computer
Computer related peripheral equipment – This includes keyboard, mouse
Computer software
Peripheral equipment like printer
Internet access
These earnings are 100% federal tax free as well as 100% state tax free
Some exceptions to this include states like NYC offering upto $10000 state tax deduction if married and filing jointly , $5000 as single. Check with your state to see if you qualify for state tax deduction. With changing rules the maximum deduction on state can be $10000 and see if availing this option can be beneficial. For NYC criteria is that account holder should be NYC state tax payer. If you work at NYC and lie in states like CT, NJ you still qualify for this
Is there a maximum contribution limit on 529 plan?
If the contribution and any other gifts to a particular beneficiary exceed $14000 there comes gift tax consequence. However, there is no limitation on number of 529 plans one can setup
Why should I think about 529 plan alternative?
In a real-time scenario say your kid becomes entrepreneur and does not end up going to college. In this scenario you end up paying 10% penalty, state tax, federal taxes. Henceforth, it would be appropriate to look at alternatives before zeroing down on 529 plan
529 plan alternatives:
Custodial Account – Also called the uniform gifts to minor act UGMA account/UTMA account this account offers minors to own securities without the need of trust to be governed by an attorney. The major difference between UTMA account and 529 is that there is no stipulation on how the amount in this account is to be spent as opposed to 529
Rental Apartments – This is an out of the box thinking. I’ve come across lots of blogposts and financial advisors talking about cash on cash return of more than 22% with real estate investments. As a matter of fact, I stumbled on a financial advice recently. according to him the wealthy community think about 18% to 22% return on an average in their investments every year. According to them warren buffet does consistent 20% return each and every year on his billion dollar net worth. If you choose to invest in rental units now, except for the down payment the rest is taken care of by your tenants
Pros of owning rental in my view:
Your child will have financial freedom from day 1 of his life, career and will not have to think about his abode investment to start with
Your child will inherit all your property without any issues
You will enjoy tax depreciation on rental, can deduct all expenses in taxes that you can count on during the big rainy days
Cons of owning rental in my own view:
If the apartment is empty you will end up paying money from your pocket
The association fee in case of condo, townhouse which is preferred rental investment in most cases does come with fees. Also, property taxes should be taken into consideration. If you do quick math all these would add up to meet 1% rule. Henceforth, it would be extremely difficult to save more than $100 per month after all the rental expenses in expensive towns. It depends on how you finalize your deal, interest rate etc
Non-payment of rent will be additional stress and you will end up in eviction process which is a legal procedure involving attorney fees etc. This is another worst case scenario every landlord should keep in mind
You expect property and rentals to appreciate in your locality. This depends on luck, how well economy performs etc
I spoke to a realtor about rental investment. Based on his information I happened to learn that in case of rental we are expected to make more down payment. It is about 30% to 40% of property value as opposed to 20%. Also, your mortgage rates are going to be atleast 1% more than normal rates. So, take to mortgage broker, shop around before you calculate rental deal and net profits
Saving Bonds from government
I’ve recently come across an information that talks about Series EE savings bond whose interest earned is tax exempt both federal and state tax exempt if being used for higher education. I did some research on this and found that these bonds are reliable, low-risk, government backed financial products whose interest rates happen to be fixed interest rate for about 30 years. Interest rate of new EE bonds is announced by US treasury every May 1st, november 1st. As of November 1st 2016 the interest rates on bond happens to be 0.10% which is taxable if not used for education purpose. Instead we can choose to invest in online banks like allybank, barclays, everbank that yield 1% APY per year, that happens to be more than this. Series I bond again yield less than the banks. So, I’d not recommend any of these bonds at current interest rate. You can choose based on your needs and preference. I’m not endorsing any of these banks and express my views that are 100% personal
Roth IRA For Educational expenses:
Typically Roth IRA contributions are after tax and the earnings are tax-free when withdrawn after 591/2 years of age. However, for qualified educational expenses they can be withdrawn tax free. One limitation is that you should have contributed over past five years to make use of this for educational expenses. IF you dont use it for education, this can be used for your retirement

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Venus in second house effects simple remedies

Venus the planet often associated with goddess mahalakshmi the bestower of wealth, riches,luxuries and enjoyment when placed in second house the dhanasthanam also called as kudumbhasthanam the house of riches, money, family, speech, communication, wealth after marriage makes a person wealthy and rich provided he does not speak bad words, ill of others including gossip about others. If not it will harm the individual

Such a person will have money, wealth, prosperity that keeps growing until 60 years of their age. Venus often considered an evil planet when placed in an auspicious house needs to be handled carefully for best luck. Avoid bad words to life happily with full wealth until 60 years of age

While purchasing house it would be better to avoid shermukhi house the house with front wider than rear portion of the house. This vastu will not suit an individual with venus in 2nd house and this will prove disastrous

Business related to gold and jewellery will not suit such individual

Business on animals, earthern goods, agriculture will suit this individual

In case of male horoscope the individual will not have more sons, in case of female horoscope this could cause delay in conception, issues with conception etc

Remedies for individuals with Venus in 2nd house :

Don’t get involved in adultery. Avoid getting involved in gossips, speaking bad words

Offer 2kgs of cow’s ghee in a temple. Cow is often associated with venus planet

Offer 2kg of potatoes coloured in yellow turmeric to cows

Intake mars related food like honey, kheer, sugar, fennel seeds called saunf to get male progeny (sons)

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Venus in 5th house effects and remedies

Venus the planet of luxury and riches offers best results when placed in house like 5th house, 9th house, 11th house. Does this happen always. The answer is depending on the character of a person, how perfect venus is saved from sun combustion this effect varies

Say venus is placed in 5th house the house that is considered to be related to sun that has property to combust venus the native in general is a flirt and will be involved in adultery most of the time. It is to be noted that the wealth, luxury, riches of this individual rises multi-fold 5 years after his marriage provided he stays away from extra-marital affair, adultery etc. If not he will face bug misfortune in life. Avoid being amorous to stay rich

In case if the individual maintains good character this will help him steer through hardships in life. Often results associated with riches, promotion, wealth in office and service happens after 5 years of marriage

Such an individual will be well learned and will be a destroyer of enemies

Remedies to Increase beneficial effects from planet Venus in 5th house :

Obey parents. Make sure you get married as per wishes of parents

Serve women and treat everyone except your wife motherlike

Serve and respect mother like woman

Avoid flirting,adultery, relationship with other woman

Native’s wife should wash private parts with milk (or) curd often associated with planet venus for best life

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Venus in 3rd house effects and home based remedies for prosperous life

Venus popularly called shukra aka shukran the planet of wealth, luxury, enjoyment, beautiful luxury cars while placed in 3rd house in an individual’s horoscope makes him extremely lovable, charming, charismatic among his group. This makes the individual naturally get attracted to women

Extra-marital affair is more than likely in case of such individual’s life if not adultery happens owing to his charismatic nature. On a positive note this is a character loved by all, having best helping nature except for one person his (or) her wife

Such an individual will have lots of girl babies (daughters)

Remedies For Venus in 3rd house :

Be loyal to your wife or husband and don’t get involved in adultery or extramarital affair

Obey your wife. In case you obey your wife she will be a pillar of support for your life same way does the second bull in a bullock cart does hold the balance

Wife is extremely supportive to you and she will save you from wrong friendships, deceit, theft ,harm etc

Extramarital affair will impact your longevity, stay controlled

If the planets like jupiter, sun are placed in 9th or 11th houses the impact will be much greater so be careful

To live long, hale, healthy , wealthy life respect your wife and avoid flirting

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Venus in 4th house Remedies for better life

Venus the planet of luxury, riches, enjoyment, wealth when posited in 4th house of an individuals’s horoscope bestows him all the best wealth, riches and luxury. This comes at the cost of two wives. If not there is a possibility of rift between wife and mother-in-law that leaves the individual in a tension state of mind day in day out. Venus represents girl babies and the individual loses the possibility of having a son if he chooses to close the well in his home with a roof, by extending sunshade above the well, building house or rooms above the well, purchasing an apartment above the water source etc. Businesses associated with planet mercury like communication, media, astrology might prove harmful to him

Such an individual should avoid drinking liquor if not he will have bad effects from planet saturn

If jupiter is placed in 1st house and venus in 4th house there will be frequent quarrel between mother-in-law and daughter-in-law

If jupiter is placed in 10th house and venus in 4th house the person should not try to be pious and religious. Else he will face adverse impact in life

Businesses related to planet mars like land, blood, health etc will prove beneficial to him

Remedies to lessen the evil effects of venus in fourth house :

Rename your wife and remarry her formally for second time to avoid adultery issues

Keep roof of your house clean and avoid extending roof over the well to have sons. This will bestow best health to your wife as well

Throw milk, silver, rice in river or flowing water

Throw chickpeas, gram, dhal, kesar in flowing water to reduce ill effects of planet jupiter

Feed mother like aged women with milk, keer the milk sweet to lesses in-law fight

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TTV dinakaran horoscope

Shri TTV dinakaran has been released on bail. There are some cases pending against him in which he is expected to be arrested. Now, the million dollar question is possibility of TTV dinakaran to be made general secretary of AIADMK,made CM of tamilnadu. Is there a possibility of this happening? Lets see what horoscope has to say about this TTV dinakaran date of birth is not available online. If someone knows about this and willing to share the detail we can provide more insight. Lets analyse the possibility of him becoming CM of tamilnadu from smt sasikala’s horoscope perspective. Sasikala born in uttrasadha nakshatra makara rasi is currently under influence of 3rd round of 7.5 years saturn called elarai nattan. This is third and final round of this saturn. Typically this is called kanda sani meaning the last stages in ones life causing issues equivalent to death or similar problems. We have already predicted that sasikala will not become CM which turned out to be true. Also edapadi is under same star and will lose his power soon. With the december 19th 2017 saturn transit complete Edapadi palaisamy will lose power soon. Coming to OPS born in revathi star he has saturn in 10th house and will not be able to regain power again after december 19th 2017 saturn transit. As such TTV dinakaran will win RK nagar election Overall M.K.Stalin born in pooram star has saturn in 5th house after december 19th 2017 saturn transit, vijayakanth born in chitra star have great timing next two years particularly after december 19th 2017 but the dasa is not favorable as he is currently under influence of mercury dasa and his ascendant happens to be scorpio ruled by mars natural enemy of mercury. Of these two stalin has the best time and chances of becoming chief minister of tamilnadu soon. Henceforth, there will be dissolution of tamilnadu government by April 2018 timeframe, after the general election by coming on december timeframe M.K.Stalin will be the chief minister of tamilnadu Note: This is purely based on simple astro calculation from us. No political offence and we are not affiliated to any political party or individual parties

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Venus in Libra Ascendant Best Luck Combination explained

Libra the 7th rasi in zodiac ruled by planet venus offers some unique benefits while certain planets are in combination with venus in Libra rasi. Venus happens to be the rasi as well as ascendant lord while posited in libra ascendant. For this ascendant specifically saturn offers the best luck. Mercury happens to be the lord of 9th and 12th house but will be 50% lucky owing to its 12th house lordship. Mercury has some unique benefits while placed in 12th house the Virgo as this is both the own house and exaltation spot for planet mercury

Now, let us see which combination offers best benefits while venus is posited in Libra and ascendant is libra

Saturn in combination with venus when posited in libra offers best results. It happens that saturn is exalted in swati the star of planet rahu offering best luck

When lord of 4th house is located in ascendant along with lord of ascendant and venus which is the same in this case the best luck is bestowed mainly after marriage

Women with dark complexion, women belonging to caste categorized in vargothama as sudras offer great material benefits to such individual

When mercury is posited alongside venus in a star next to star where venus is posited (ie) venus in chitra nakshatra mercury in swati this offers best of best luck. Such individual probably will have monetary gain from selling furniture on EMI basis. Combination needed would be venus, mercury, saturn in libra with libra as ascendant, dasa should be venus , mercury (or) saturn dasa